For the iconic Porsche 911, 1997 marked a year of radical change. The internal designation was 996, and it underwent a complete redesign from the ground up. For 30 years an air-cooled flat engine resided at the rear. In the 996, the 911 received a water-cooled flat-six engine with four valves per cylinder for increased performance, efficiency, and engine temperature management.
For the 2001 model year, Porsche introduced the all-wheel-drive Turbo variant with face-lifted bodywork, featuring larger ducts at the front bumper to improve airflow to the radiators before the front wheels, widened fenders with large intake ducts before the rear wheel arches, and distinctive vents for the intercoolers at the rear bumper. A hydraulically actuated rear spoiler rises automatically at 76 mph to increase downforce. The 420-horsepower, 3.6-liter twin turbocharged-and-intercooled-engine-incorporated technology is from the 1998 911 GT1 race car. Building upon the proven Turbo model, the Turbo S package was introduced for the 2005 model year in both coupe and cabriolet form and further increased its already impressive performance and handling capabilities.